William D. Rubinstein Few academics have enjoyed the influence of Edward Said (1935–2003), the father of “post-colonialism”, and a dominant figure across the board in left-wing postmodernism. Said then developed an idea of a relationship between power and descriptions. Religion was not included as a permissible basis for alleging discrimination in the other parts of the Civil Rights Act and was omitted from the provisions of Title VI as a prohibited basis of discrimination. The instigators of this violent episode, which led to the overthrow of King Farouk and the installation of the Nasser regime, are unknown, but were most probably radical members of the Muslim Brotherhood, who hated Western values and lifestyles. Needless to say, Edward Said did not remark on this aspect of “orientalism”, any more than he commented on the treatment in the Islamic world of political dissenters, religious minorities, women or gays. On many grounds the arguments made in Orientalism are deeply flawed and seriously misleading. Before Said, Orientalism was divided in two: one part was a school of art adopted by painters who visited North Africa and the Middle East and painted what they saw or imagined. Edward Said and the Two Critiques of Orientalism Edward Said and the Two Critiques of Orientalism. But this was simply not the case with Britain or America. Widespread left-wing anti-Zionism had hardly yet emerged. Harassment: A Problem of Definition 3 Grateful acknowledgements is made to the following for permission to reprint previously published material: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.: Excerpts from Subject of the Day: Being a Selection of Speeches and Writings by George Nathaniel Curzon. What has actually emerged, in effect, is a new form of anti-Semitism, because the state of Israel acts as a proxy for Jews at large. Why has the position of Jews at American universities deteriorated in the past decade and what can be done about it? When a Beirut publisher offered to bring the book out in Arabic, it asked Said to remove his criticism of Syria and Saudi Arabia. Hardly. Among the firms totally destroyed at the time was Said’s father’s office supply business—in other words, Said’s father lost his wealth not at the hands of Zionists during the Palestinian “Nakba”, but, in all likelihood, to Islamic fundamentalist terrorists who regarded his business as a component of Western decadence. John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt’s The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy presents an additional challenge as it focuses on the U.S.-Israeli partnership. On September 25, 2003, the day that he died, students and staff of Columbia University gathered in the garden outside Philosophy Hall, where the longtime professor of English and comparative literature had his office, for a candlelight vigil. Edward Said's signature contribution to academic life is the book Orientalism. These scholars were ignored in Said’s works, as were modern scholars who studied the politics, economy and religious culture of the Islamic world in a serious way. Influences of Edward Saïd and how these influences impacted this literary critic. Roger Owen. Read our conversation with Argentinian journalist Natalia Vinelli about how Edward Said’s work is just as relevant in Latin America as it is in the Middle East. A core premise of postcolonial theory is that it is immoral for a scholar to put his knowledge of foreign languages and cultures at the service of American power. Edward W Said was an extraordinary political and intellectual presence for all of us. The West is inextricably bound in its perpetuation of Eastern stereotypes and Said uses his literature to explore the inequalities of the East and the West. Said was a leading figure in the creation of the ruling intellectual paradigm in academic area studies (especially Middle East studies), which is called postcolonial theory. In 1889 he published a pamphlet, Muhammedism, which defended Islam against its critics, and, in the same year, established the Woking Mosque in Surrey, the first mosque in Britain. These allegations are now being probed by the U.S. Department of Education. Martin Kramer in his book, Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America, details the pervasive influence of Said’s postcolonial theory on the discipline of Middle East studies throughout North America. This has engendered statements that, for example, Israelis are doing to Palestinians what was done to Jews during World War II and that the security fence is Israel’s method of “ghettoizing” the Palestinians. So what? When Disraeli said in his novel Tancred that the East was ... Culture, of course, is to be found operating within civil society, where the influence of ideas, of institutions, and of other persons works not through domination but by what Gramsci calls consent. Britain acquired Egypt in 1882, in order to control the Suez Canal, and Iraq, Jordan and Palestine after the First World War, but otherwise steered clear of obtaining Muslim colonies, and always left their elite structure intact, while suppressing the worst aspects of their societies such as slavery. But, unlike Said, his Tsarist predecessor did not become internationally famous by defaming the culture in which he lived or by depicting the alleged wrongs done to the society where, since childhood, he had never lived and which he had chosen to leave permanently. Jewish Identity and Civil Rights in America presents clear evidence of the lack of balance in academia, where so-called scholarship consistently fails to examine, much less condemn, terrorism or jihadism. From 1951 until his death in 2003, Said lived in the United States and never moved back to the Middle East, although he made many visits there. The paper will focus on Edward Said's views and ideas by exploring his most important books and articles, for the simple reason that Said is considered the one who laid the cornerstone of this theory, despite the importance of other leading figures such as Gayatri Spivak and Homi Bhabha in this respect. Written in a fun and humorous tone to make it easy to digest. Kurtz, in conjunction with other critics such as the Middle East scholars Daniel Pipes and Martin Kramer, highlighted the bias existing in Title VI-funded Middle East centers. Said refused. The authors contend that there is no sound justification for America’s support for Israel, to which they refer as a “strategic burden.” They argue further that the pro-Israeli camp has “hijacked” U.S. foreign policy to the detriment of America’s interests. There is, for instance, the definition of “orientalism” itself. If the Islamic world did indeed see a scientific golden age when Europe was in darkness, this has now vanished without trace. Many of its students were Jews or Maltese; few were Palestinians. Yet fewer public intellectuals, even among gurus of the Left intelligentsia, … Edward Said and the Two Critiques of Orientalism Edward Said and the Two Critiques of Orientalism. Yet of all the appalling stances taken by the contemporary Left intelligentsia, those associated with “post-colonialism” are arguably the most hypocritical. It has been influential in about half a dozen established disciplines, especially literary studies (English, comparative literature), history, anthropology, sociology, area studies (especially middle east studies), and comparative religion. The region was virtually absent from the American consciousness. It is, however, quite indicative of the academy’s attitude of impunity that whatever is said in a classroom, academic or not, is deemed protected by “academic freedom.” Only sexual harassment appears exempt from this blanket protection. After serving with U.S. forces in France during the war, Wadie Said returned to Jerusalem. Most ironically, Said’s father’s high life came to an abrupt end in January 1952, in the “Cairo Fire”, a one-day rampage of rioting, arson and murder in which terrorists destroyed hundreds of shops, hotels, cinemas and restaurants. In that context, Said equated academics who support American foreign policy with the nineteenth-century European intellectuals … In particular, Said can be seen to have been influenced by Gramsci’s notion of hegemony in understanding the pervasiveness of Orientalist constructs and representations in Western scholarship and reporting, and their relation to the exercise of power over the “Orient”. Similarly, the academic and scholarly “orientalists” who wrote about the Islamic world between about 1750 and 1940 were seldom hostile to Islam or to Muslim culture; quite the opposite. Jewish Political Studies Review Spring 2011. Your email address will not be published. Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward W. Said, in which the author establishes the eponymous term " Orientalism " as a critical concept to describe the West 's common, contemptuous depiction and portrayal of " The East," i.e. April 20, 2012. Leitner lived in India and was a renowned linguist who knew fifteen languages; it was Leitner who suggested the title “Kaisar-i-Hind” (Empress of India), adopted by Queen Victoria. To the extent that it becomes harder to make a case for Israel on campus and in the Jewish community in general, the environment has become increasingly hostile to the pro-Israeli community. The Islamic world impacted on Western countries to very different degrees, and, until recently, had virtually no impact at all in many Western countries. The use of offensive imagery, such as the swastika to portray Jews, the rejection of opinion based on ethnicity, and demonization to the point where physical threats seem justified, is not part of civil discourse and legitimate critique. Though initially doubted by Orientalists and Islamists, Said’s theories and concepts were applied eventually to European colonial literature. This fiasco has resulted from a problem of definition. East – Study and teaching I. Vinelli is the founder of Barricada TV - a cooperative TV channel and is author of ‘Television from below: History, … The Influence of French Theory on Edward Said’s Concept of Worldliness Martin Vega Comparative Literature T his paper tracks the antecedents to Edward Said’s concept of worldliness and considers the challenges this concept presents to humanistic assumptions. The first point to be made is that he and his family were Episcopalians (American Anglicans), not Muslims or even native Middle Eastern Christians like the Copts or Maronites. Said was heavily influenced by French philosopher Michel Foucault, and those who have developed the theory of imagined geographies have linked these together. Corynn. Roger Owen. Please edit this essay, take into account the instructions that I am uploading to you in the guidelines. FROM THE RIVER TO THE SEA, PALESTINE WILL NEVER BE, ONLY ISRAEL YESSIREE!!! The fact is that, despite the recent resurgence of anti-Semitic incidents on American college campuses, the OCR has been incapable of protecting Jewish students. This is not your grandmother's Jane Austen. Said presents only the most negative views of the Islamic world as representative of its depiction in the mainstream West, ignoring any more positive views. The hearing was convened to examine charges of bias in international studies programs funded under Title VI of the Higher Education Act of 1965, including the academic study of the Middle East and other areas of the world. Gradually the entire American campus has become an “academic freedom” zone where protests and other activities now qualify as academic “speech.” The freedom to critique is, predictably, directed mostly at the two Satans: Israel and America, while efforts to curtail speech that academics find uncongenial have long taken the form of “speech codes” and restrictions on “hate speech.” Clearly, the exercise of academic freedom is a one-way street; only those having the correct opinions may claim it. A lot of the problem is that too many of the rabbis are alta cockas who can’t keep up with the new generation. This bias correlated with the influence of the late Palestinian intellectual Edward Said. 5 years ago # QUOTE 4 YEA 7 NAY! This situation must be challenged by all those concerned about the health of academia, as well as the continued well-being of Israel. Said stated repeatedly that he was a Palestinian born in Jerusalem, which is true, but, like so much else in the autobiographical accounts he gave, it is economical with the truth. Said’s father was one of the richest men in Cairo; his family lived in a luxury flat and Said was driven to school in a chauffeured limousine. “Orientalism”, an old term, was reworked by Said to mean the West’s continuing image of “the East”, the Islamic world, ubiquitously patronising, negative and distorted. Wadie Said was a Palestinian man who soldiered in the U.S. Army component of the American Expeditionary Forces (1917–19), commanded by General John J. Pershing, in the First World War (1914–18). The Influence of French Theory on Edward Said’s Concept of Worldliness Martin Vega Comparative Literature T his paper tracks the antecedents to Edward Said’s concept of worldliness and considers the challenges this concept presents to humanistic assumptions. It was this celebrated work that generated other related books and materials. Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic, cultural and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but also in the present." Fanon, as an adult, articulates the effects of these institutions of oppression on the black consciousness. By 1978, Marxist class war was largely passé, and was in the process of being replaced by ethnic- and gender-based hostility to the established order. What, you think she's just a warm and fuzzy ironist with a soft spot for shipping quirky couples? Edward Said had been expelled from Victoria College in 1951, and was then sent, improbably, to Mount Hermon School in rural Massachusetts, his father having acquired American citizenship during the First World War when he served in the American army. These ideas, which became institutionalized over the past decades, form the backdrop to the treatment of Jews and Israel on American campuses. During the first term of President George W. Bush, Kenneth Marcus served as delegated assistant secretary of education for civil rights in the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR). Edward Wadie Said was born on 1 November 1935, to Hilda Said and Wadie Said, a businessman in Jerusalem, then part of British-governed Mandatory Palestine (1920–48). He then proceeded to earn a BA at Princeton and a PhD from Harvard. Edward Said's Influence Since Edward Said’s death on September 25 th 2003, the situation in the Middle East has changed rapidly. First, let’s look at what “Orientalism” was before Said redefined it. Said was a leading figure in the creation of the ruling intellectual paradigm in academic area studies (especially Middle East studies), which is called postcolonial theory. Said became probably the best-known Palestinian intellectual, and was, from 1977 until 1991, a member of the Palestinian National Council, although he later fell out with Yasser Arafat and had his books banned from sale in areas controlled by the PLO. Yes. Yet fewer public intellectuals, even among gurus of the Left intelligentsia, have been more inaccurate or perverse in their influence. The alignment of many on the West with E. Said is nothing else but a continuation of the alliance of the West with the Muslims against the Jews. Edward W Said was an extraordinary political and intellectual presence for all of us. The Influence of Edward Said and Orientalism on Anthropology Reviewed by Asaf Romirowsky After the 2001 9/11 terrorist attacks carried out by Al Qaeda, the current American president George Bush went to war with Iraq in a bid to find ‘weapons of mass destruction’ (Guardian 2003). In Culture and Imperialism (1993), for instance, he took direct aim at This bias correlated with the influence of the late Palestinian intellectual Edward Said. Said’s contention is that Islam and its societies are portrayed inaccurately in the Western media. This paucity of top-flight scientific talent in the Muslim world has occurred despite the fact that there are no fewer than 1800 colleges and universities in the forty-six countries with Muslim majority populations. Only small numbers of immigrants from the region ever settled in the United States. During an address there in February last year, Oren was repeatedly interrupted by this group of Muslim students. My 16 year old grand-daughter complained that the rabbi smelled like an old man. Edward Said and Postcolonial Theory Disjunctured Identities and the Subaltern Voice Fanny Price [in Jane Austen's Mansfield Park] reminds her cousin that after ask- ing Sir Thomas about the slave trade, "There was such a dead silence" as to While Said repeatedly implied that he grew up as a Palestinian in Jerusalem, this is simply not true, although he had (wealthy) relatives there, whom he occasionally visited. From Said we know the Middle East is misunderstood and actually a place where peace reigns and forward-thinking regimes announce breakthroughs by female scientists on the daily. Indeed, American films were specifically forbidden to depict Islam in a negative light, a fact of which Said was probably unaware. Asaf Romirowsky is a Philadelphia-based Middle East analyst, a lecturer in history at Pennsylvania State University, and an adjunct scholar at the Middle East Forum. Said's father had immigrated to the United States before World War I(1914–18). Proactive Steps NeededFor the purpose of Marcus’s case, the use of the word manifestations was key to illustrating that anti-Israeli incidents do fall under the rubric defined by Title VI. Said’s post-colonialist theory was closely allied to other postmodernist and “post-structuralist” critiques, sharing their rhetorical claptrap and their common aim at ideological destruction. Furthermore, Marcus’s work enabled the California district attorney’s office to press criminal charges against a group of Muslim students for infringing the freedom of speech of Israeli ambassador to the U.S. Michael Oren at UCI. He is quite correct: the Islamic world is arguably a dozen times worse than it is depicted, especially by the politically correct Western Left. His critical intelligence, expressed so many times in his courageous and principled stands for the self-determination of oppressed people all around the world, will be widely missed. This may sound like the punch line of a bad joke, but when Nature magazine published a sketch of science in the Arab world in 2002, its reporter identified just three scientific areas in which the Islamic world excelled: desalination, falconry, and camel reproduction. Notes Edward Said’s works underscore the interplay between “literary form and social hierarchy and power” (Humanities centre, 2008, p.2) and moreover, enhance our understanding of a vast array of literary works. the Orient. Edward Said's influence on academe looms even larger in death than during his life. Art. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.”. Said’s major work, Orientalism, blamed all of the troubles of the Middle East on the West, stemming from a “trifecta of evils” – imperialism, racism, and Zionism. Edward Said has challenged the hegemonic order of the East and the West and additionally, the marginalization of the Arab peoples. For instance, to English-speaking readers, probably the best-known literary work by an Islamic writer is The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a long poem by a Persian astronomer and poet who died in 1131, as translated into English by Edward FitzGerald in five editions between 1859 and 1889. He is influenced by and influences the "negritude" movement which called for a black identity (as opposed to assimilating with the colonizing white culture). In that context, Said equated academics who support American foreign policy with the nineteenth-century European intellectuals who allegedly propped up racist colonial empires. While Orientalism often ignored evidence that ran counter to its thesis, it is still the canonical text in the field of Middle Eastern studies. Before the 1970s, the United States almost never intervened in the Middle East, let alone had colonies there. by Kenneth L. Marcus, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 225 pp. Said’s post-colonialist views had the additional merit in that probably 98 per cent of its Western advocates had no direct personal knowledge of “the Orient”, the subject they were writing about. Edward's mother Hilda Said was PART THREE: EDWARD SAID (1935-2003) Orientalism. Said, Edward W. Orientalism, 1. There are 1.6 billion Muslims alive today; exactly three Muslim scientists have won Nobel Prizes in science, compared with, for instance, eleven winners who were born, educated or worked in Australia (population 25 million today), and fifty-seven who were educated or taught at Columbia University in New York, where Said taught. Edward Said’s Orientalism and the Study of the Self and the Other in Orwell’s Burmese Days S. R. Moosavinia 1 N. Niazi2 Ahmad Ghaforian3 Abstract: Critics unanimously regard Said’s Orientalism as the cornerstone of postcolonial canon. Title 950’.07 DS32.8 78-40534 ISBN 0 7100 0040 5 ISBN 0 7100 0555 5 Pbk . * * * According to Hillel Ofek: Today the spirit of science in the Muslim world is as dry as the desert … Forty-six Muslim countries combined contribute just 1 per cent of the world’s scientific literature; Spain and India each contribute more of the world’s scientific literature than those countries taken together … Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg has observed “for forty years I have not seen a single paper by a physicist or astronomer working in a Muslim country that was worth reading” …. Mearsheimer and Walt actually claim that AIPAC’s pressure bought about the war in Iraq. Instead of waiting to express their dissent during the scheduled question-and-answer session, they took turns standing up and shouting epithets at Oren such as “mass murderer” and “war criminal.” As a result, Oren’s ability to make his points was significantly impaired. The book that launched Edward Said to fame was his magnum opus Orientalism. Edward Said's "Orientalism" was a cultural bombshell that has become a landmark -- some would say a crater. Said was not educated in Palestine, but in Egypt at Victoria College, Alexandria, an exclusive private school, founded in 1900 by Lord Cromer, the British viceroy, for the local rich and powerful of all backgrounds. A study in 1989 found that in one year the United States published 10,481 scientific papers that were frequently cited, while the entire Arab world published only four. Although much work still needs to be done, there is no doubt that Marcus’s campaign struck a significant chord that consequently allowed groups such as the Zionist Organization of America to file a complaint against the University of California, Irvine (UCI), on grounds of anti-Semitic harassment. His well-known book, Orientalism was published in 1978 and is probably the often utilized structural analysis of Post-Colonial theory. It has been influential in about half a dozen established disciplines, especially literary studies (English, comparative literature), history, anthropology, sociology, area studies (especially middle east studies), and comparative religion. Few academics have enjoyed the influence of Edward Said (1935–2003), the father of “post-colonialism”, and a dominant figure across the board in left-wing postmodernism. Since the nineteenth century, the term has been used exclusively about the Islamic Middle East, while, in America and elsewhere, the term “the Orient” is used exclusively about the Far East—China, Japan, Korea and environs. It should be clear from all this that Said had little contact with and no professional connections with the Middle East or its universities, although he gave lectures there, as he did elsewhere. Harassment of Jewish and pro-Israeli students on American campuses Simon and Garfunkel records as if it s. The crown ” of the Left intelligentsia, those associated with “ post-colonialism ” are arguably the hypocritical! Of Said 's signature contribution to academic life is the book that launched Edward Said IR. Israel on American campuses attempts to intimidate, alienate and silence Jews others... In death than during his life the Arabs, especially the so-called “ subaltern class,... 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